Despite significant barriers, it is clear that Yemeni women are already an integral part of conflict resolution efforts locally. At the international level, this needs to be reflected in their meaningful participation in peace negotiations. International organisations including the United Nations have an opportunity to amplify the voices of Yemeni women already working to build peace at the grassroots level and reduce barriers to their involvement.
Lesley Sutton: They are a completely separate culture within a culture. Although the Yemeni men have made significant contributions to the town of Eccles, among the women there is almost no integration. In Eccles (the area in Greater Manchester where the project took place), many of the Yemeni have settled into a number of streets in one neighborhood near the mosque. Something like two-thirds of the houses on some streets are lived in by Yemenis, so they have quite a ghetto going on. The local primary school is now something like 80 percent Yemeni.
Objectives: In the effort to increase utilization of professional care during childbirth in low-income countries, few studies have taken a holistic approach to investigating women's perspective of safety and the link to perceived own authority at birth. The aim of the study was to examine women's authority at birth with reference to the intrapartum factors, the level of training of staff and the social and demographic background of women.
In Malaysia, there has been a significant reduction in the incidence, prevalence, and mortality of CC in the last 20 years due to the implementation of a free-of-charge Pap Smear screening program for all Malaysian women in public hospitals and other health facilities . While the consequences of CC have decreased in most countries following the Pap smear availability for the early diagnosis of cancerous changes, CC is still leading to devastating outcomes among various minority groups including immigrants . Some minority groups such as immigrants may not be aware of the available screening programme and may suffer from late-stage CC that can lead to poor health consequences or even death . A study conducted among Iraqi immigrant women staying in Malaysia found that lack of awareness of CC, the availability of Pap smear and the cost of screening services are the reasons for not doing a Pap test . Other studies that have been conducted in high-income countries such as the United States of America (USA) have revealed that a higher proportion of women who suffered from CC are from some minority groups of immigrant women . In Malaysia, the Pap smear test is available for immigrants as a screening tool in public hospitals and private clinics. Hence, healthy women who are willing to undertake regular screening for CC have to pay out of pocket for Pap smear test. Early CC symptoms might not be painful or affect the functioning and may not be predicted as warning signs of CC or elicit help-seeking behavior . Knowledge and awareness of CC are fundamental to improve participation in CC prevention and control. Therefore, it has been found that raising awareness of the warning symptoms and signs of CC and encouraging early presentation could reduce patient-attributable delay in the diagnosis of cancer and reduce mortality . Hence, this study aimed to determine the level of awareness of CC and its socio-demographic variances among Yemeni immigrants in Malaysia.
In regard to awareness of the risk factors, the capacity to recall the 11 risk factors was very low among all participants and this is consistent with previous studies [17, 19]. The risk factors of smoking and the use of contraceptives were the most recalled by the current study sample (10% and 8.4%, respectively) and these results are similar to those in the previous study also  and in contrast with other studies which found sexual behavior related factors as the most identified risk factors [16, 20]. This could probably be a result of genuine knowledge of this specific risk factor or could be a result of misconception as women have been known to disproportionately relate birth control pills with many side effects such as infertility and cancer . Though, this needs further studies to support.
It was not surprising to find that among the participants in this study awareness by recall was very poor in respect of HPV being a risk factor (0.5%) because similar results have been reported in previous studies[16, 22]. However, a study performed in Egypt revealed that 32.5% think that CC is caused by a viral infection .
The strength of this study is that it approaches an important issue in an under-studied population, and it will have great potential to contribute to the improvement of healthcare for minority immigrant women. However, this study has some limitations. First, when the participants were selected randomly, the non-response rate was high which leads the researcher to change the sampling method to convenient sampling. As a result, the sample may not be representative of the whole community. Second, as the information on screening was self-reported, the study may be subjected to information bias.
Pregnant and breastfeeding women are especially vulnerable to malnutrition, and those weakened by the nutrition crisis are more prone to infections, including cholera. Pregnant women who contract cholera have a higher risk of developing dangerous or even fatal complications.
Prostitution in Yemen is illegal and punishable by penalty from 3 years of prison to even death penalty but common especially in Aden and in the capital, Sana'a. UNAIDS estimate there are 54,000 prostitutes in the country. Many of these women have turned to prostitution because of poverty. Many are Somali refugees.
Yemen is a country of origin and, to a lesser extent, transit and destination, for women and children subjected to sex trafficking. The ongoing conflict, lack of rule of law, and the deteriorating economy have likely disrupted some trafficking patterns and exacerbated others. Traffickers, security officials, and employers forced some Yemeni children into sex trafficking in Saudi Arabia. Prior to the conflict, Yemen was a transit point and destination for women and children, primarily from the Horn of Africa, who were subjected to sex trafficking. Ethiopians and Somalis travelled voluntarily to Yemen with the hope of employment in Gulf countries, but some women and children among this population may have been exploited in sex trafficking in Yemen. Others migrated based on fraudulent offers of employment as domestic workers in Yemen, where they were subsequently subjected to sex trafficking. Some female refugees were previously forced into prostitution in Aden and Lahij Governorates. The UN estimated that the protracted Syrian conflict resulted in an influx of as many as 100,000 Syrian refugees to Yemen; Syrian refugee women and children begging in the streets were highly vulnerable to sex trafficking in the country.
In 2011, UNHCR recorded more than 103,000 new arrivals in Yemen. This is the largest influx they have seen since they started documenting statistics six years ago, and Leposky suspects an increase for 2012. The real numbers are thought to be much higher.
The emotional impact this show had on me made me realize just how deprived I felt of representation, still. It also made me wonder how different my life would have been if I had grown up at a time when women like Mindy Kaling were making television, if I had seen these kinds of characters regularly on TV, film, and in books. How would that have affected my self-esteem? The dreams I would have allowed myself to have?
Now, those efforts have stalled. As the war grinds on, community leaders and aid workers are noticing that more and more girls, some as young as 8, are being married off to help their desperate families. Tens of thousands of families have been displaced, losing their homes and possessions.
Today, hospital wards are filled with children suffering from bullet and shrapnel wounds. Others are severely malnourished. Thousands have died from hunger or preventable diseases. Children are widely used as soldiers or to man checkpoints. More than 1,600 schools have shut down.
One charity, the Danish Refugee Council, recruited community leaders in Saada to raise awareness about the dangers girls face when they marry young and become mothers. Yemen has one of the highest rates of maternal mortality in the world, with girls as young as 12 dying at childbirth, aid workers informed the residents.
She remembers her father telling her and her sister, Amal, that the family needed money. She remembers that Amal was in tears because her new husband was taking her to another region. The two sisters have not seen each other since their weddings.
During the conflict, women have started new enterprises, often home-based businesses, or entered professions like waitressing or retail which were previously dominated by men. The humanitarian response in Yemen has created new employment for women, while some women have been employed in security forces for parties to the conflict. Yemeni women have been pushed into poorly paid, informal physical labor like domestic work, while others have been forced into negative coping mechanisms such as begging.
While the conflict may have created new opportunities for some women, fighting has also driven women to negative coping mechanisms, including debt, begging and prostitution. Child marriage has soared during the conflict, as families have resorted to marrying their daughters early to secure dowry payments and to be relieved of the costs of caring for them. The rate of gender-based violence has also risen by an estimated 63 percent. In some areas, fighting has left women less able to leave the house due to security concerns. Some women have been forced into poorly-paid, informal physical work, like house cleaning, collecting firewood and washing clothes. 2b1af7f3a8