But are we focusing on the wrong things when discussing health care? Rather than look at public versus private, we should be looking at innovations in the world of business. If we take the right cues from the business world and apply them to health, we could end up with a more affordable and more efficient system. So how do we do this? This book summary will show.
How can we imagine healthcare in 10 years? What will be the effects of available tools and devices for prevention and prediction on diagnosing and treating diseases and on a healthy longevity? How do we deal with inequalities in healthcare delivery, access and increasing costs? Is the current education geared toward the anticipated changes? Questions need answers, and the proper problem identification leads to innovative, applicable solutions.
When compared to traditional problem-solving methods, design thinking brings sustainable and applicable solutions, facilitating improvements for patients, care facilities and communities, while improving management and collaborations toward public health procedures. Based on the outcomes introduced by this approach a closer look at the traditional educational curricula in and around health-related programs (engineering, natural science, clinical science), currently lacking twenty first-century skills (e.g., problem-solving, stakeholder empathy, curiosity stimulation, entrepreneurship, and health economics) is needed. Abookire et al. integrated Design Thinking to develop a workshop through the collaboration between the Health Design Lab and Colleges of Medicine and Population Health at Thomas Jefferson University to enrich traditional public health education curricula (11). The workshop aimed to train public health students to more efficiently and effectively deal with complex problems as future healthcare professionals and providers. Students were engaged to investigate public health problems by applying viable and feasible solutions, demonstrating the valuable role of Design Thinking as an innovative and empathy-driven approach in improving the health of individuals and the wellness of the entire community.
To summarize, the results obtained from Sci-Fi Hive and ITTCP can be compared, although some questions we provided were different between the two programs. In general, with a top-down approach, Sci-Fi Hive identified prevention over treatment, patient empowerment, and personalized medicine as the most impactful values/perspectives to generate innovation in healthcare, and that regulatory approvals, government/political interests, traditional not transparent business model, fear of changes were responsible factors to prevent disruptive innovation.
Thus, we aim to develop a novel educational curriculum based on the I3-EME as an educational concept (Identify-Invent-Implement) (28). The educational and teaching focus would be based on an interdisciplinary approach in which medical and engineering students would merge, working together on advanced clinical solutions based on the taught I3-EME Concept. The I3-EME aims to identify unmet clinical needs, invent feasible solutions and successfully implement them at adequate market needs. New technologies based on AI, AR, 3D, robotics, digital health, ethics, and future societal challenges, in line with medical technologies and services, will change the focus from inpatient to outpatient, prevention, reduction of costs, and democratization healthcare. Based on this educational content and the I3-EME concepts, students will have the opportunity to work and explore meaningful and valuable products/services to understand and solve global healthcare needs.
These are just a few of the challenges that the healthcare system is facing nowadays. Although the urgent need to innovate and improve the healthcare system and services, the entire setup and management typically only leads to incremental rather than disruptive innovation. Incremental means that we observe improvements that do not significantly impact longevity but increase the cost significantly based on existing technologies and workflows.
Through the implemented online surveys, we investigated the quality and efficiency of these educational programs and events. The survey results showed that most attendees were entrepreneurs, medical doctors, and students interested in exploring the topic of innovative healthcare. When speculating about the future implementation of technologies (>10 years' perspective), most responses were digital healthcare, AI, VR/AR, and brain-computer interfaces. Concepts like prevention over treatment, patient empowerment, and personalized medicine were considered the most impactful values/perspectives to generate meaningful innovation in healthcare. Factors like regulatory approvals (e.g., CE, FDA), government/political interests, unclear business model, and fear of changes were identified as responsible for preventing disruptive innovation. The lack of a customer profile/market test was the main reason for failure in a start-up/business/research/industry project dealing with healthcare innovation.
Based on our research results and the need of a revised education, our mission is to design a novel Master's Degree, called Entrepreneurship Design Thinking Curriculum for Healthtech Innovation, based on health technology innovation design, digital health methods, predictive and preventive medicine to reach our transformative goal in democratizing healthcare. Hence, we aim to establish novel curricula combining technical, economic, scientific and medical skills with twenty first-century skills to educate future health innovators and professionals. These curricula would comprehend programs taught in English, online teaching, on-site team projects and annual summer/winter schools. Through individual assignments, trimestral examinations, research team projects and tutoring support, students would be capable of reaching a novel degree in innovation generation aimed to generate the innovative mindset, attitude, and learning skills behind the feasible, valuable application of disruptive health technologies and finally moving the healthcare needle from sickness to health.
The governments of China and the United States - despite profound differences in history, culture, economic structure, and political ideology - both engage the private sector in the pursuit of public value. This book employs the term collaborative governance to describe relationships where neither the public nor private party is fully in control, arguing that such shared discretion is needed to deliver value to citizens. This concept is exemplified across a wide range of policy arenas, such as constructing high speed rail, hosting the Olympics, building human capital, and managing the healthcare system. This book will help decision-makers apply the principles of collaborative governance to effectively serve the public, and will enable China and the United States to learn from each other's experiences. It will empower public decision-makers to more wisely engage the private sector. The book's overarching conclusion is that transparency is the key to the legitimate growth of collaborative governance.
Millions of Americans are using complementary and alternative medicine and spending billions of dollars, out of pocket, for it. Why? Do the therapies work? Are they safe? Are any covered by insurance? How is the medical profession responding to the growing use of therapies that were only recently thought of as quackery? These are some of the many questions asked and answered in this book. It describes a transformation in the status of alternative medicine within health care. Paving the way toward legitimacy is research currently underway and funded by the National Institutes of Health. This research is proving the safety and efficacy of certain therapies and the harm or inefficacy of others. Although some therapies will remain alternative to medicine, others are becoming complementary, and still others are busting the boundaries and contributing to a new approach to health and healing called integrative medicine.
Christensen was the best-selling author of ten books, including his seminal work The Innovator's Dilemma (1997), which received the Global Business Book Award for the best business book of the year. One of the main concepts depicted in this book is also his most disseminated and famous one: disruptive innovation. The concept has been growing in interest over time since 2004, according to Google Trends data. However, due to constant misinterpretation, Christensen often wrote articles trying to explain the concept even further. Some of his other books are focused on specific industries and discuss social issues such as education and health care. Disrupting Class (2008) looks at the root causes of why schools struggle and offers solutions, while The Innovator's Prescription (2009) examines how to fix the American healthcare system. The latter two books have received numerous awards as the best books on education and health care in their respective years of publication. The Innovator's Prescription was also awarded the 2010 James A. Hamilton Award, by the College of Healthcare Executives.
I'd also like to acknowledge the work of Max Hardy, a consultant with Australasian firm Twyford Consulting, which specialises in Collaborative Governance. Also, the work of Clayton Christensen with his books on Disruptive Innovation - The Innovators Dilemma and the Innovators Prescription. I also enjoyed making links in my research with Dr Richard Bohmer, a New Zealand doctor who is a professor at Harvard Business School and currently doing some consulting work at the Auckland District Health Board, focusing on innovative models of care. Michael Porter's Redefining Healthcare was also fascinating. 2b1af7f3a8