The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involvesseveral techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latestprogress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type ofpaper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.
9/18/20: New on Apple Arcade today includes: Samurai Jack and Marble Knights. The first is an action RPG title, while the latter takes you into battle with a marble-mania adventure. It looks like both were previously released and these are the latest updates.
Summary The specificity of RNAi pathways is determined by several classes of small RNAs, which include siRNAs, piRNAs, endo-siRNAs, and microRNAs (miRNAs). These small RNAs are invariably incorporated into large Argonaute (Ago)-containing effector complexes known as RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which they guide to silencing targets. Both genetic and biochemical strategies have yielded conserved molecular components of small RNA biogenesis and effector machineries. However, given the complexity of these pathways, there are likely to be additional components and regulators that remain to be uncovered. We have undertaken a comparative and comprehensive RNAi screen to identify genes that impact three major Ago-dependent small RNA pathways that operate in Drosophila S2 cells. We identify subsets of candidates that act positively or negatively in siRNA, endo-siRNA and miRNA pathways. Our studies indicate that many components are shared among all three Argonaute-dependent silencing pathways, though each is also impacted by discrete sets of genes. PMID:19026789
...; Notice of Registration; Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc. By Notice dated November 27, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on December 5, 2012, 77 FR 72409, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc... Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances is...
In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Piwi-interacting small RNA (piRNA)-mediated germline surveillance system encodes more than 30,000 unique 21-nucleotide piRNAs, which silence a variety of foreign nucleic acids. What mechanisms allow endogenous germline-expressed transcripts to evade silencing by the piRNA pathway? One likely candidate in a protective mechanism is the Argonaute CSR-1, which interacts with 22G-small RNAs that are antisense to nearly all germline-expressed genes. Here, we use an in vivo RNA tethering assay to demonstrate that the recruitment of CSR-1 to a transcript licenses expression of the transcript, protecting it from piRNA-mediated silencing. Licensing occurs mainly at the level of transcription, as we observe changes in pre-mRNA levels consistent with transcriptional activation when CSR-1 is tethered. Furthermore, the recruitment of CSR-1 to a previously silenced locus transcriptionally activates its expression. Together, these results demonstrate a rare positive role for an endogenous Argonaute pathway in heritably licensing and protecting germline transcripts.
...; Notice of Registration; Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Inc. By Notice dated January 26, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on February 6, 2012, 77 FR 5847, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., 100... Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., to manufacture the listed basic classes of controlled substances is consistent...
MicroRNA (miRNA) and Argonaute (AGO) protein together form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) that plays an essential role in the regulation of gene expression. Elucidating the underlying mechanism of AGO-miRNA recognition is thus of great importance not only for the in-depth understanding of miRNA function but also for inspiring new drugs targeting miRNAs. In this chapter we introduce a combined computational approach of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and protein-RNA docking to investigate AGO-miRNA recognition. Constructed from MD simulations, MSMs can elucidate the conformational dynamics of AGO at biologically relevant timescales. Protein-RNA docking can then efficiently identify the AGO conformations that are geometrically accessible to miRNA. Using our recent work on human AGO2 as an example, we explain the rationale and the workflow of our method in details. This combined approach holds great promise to complement experiments in unraveling the mechanisms of molecular recognition between large, flexible, and complex biomolecules.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression on the level of translation and/or mRNA stability. Mammalian miRNAs associate with members of the Argonaute (Ago) protein family and bind to partially complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of specific target mRNAs. Computer algorithms based on factors such as free binding energy or sequence conservation have been used to predict miRNA target mRNAs. Based on such predictions, up to one third of all mammalian mRNAs seem to be under miRNA regulation. However, due to the low degree of complementarity between the miRNA and its target, such computer programs are often imprecise and therefore not very reliable. Here we report the first biochemical identification approach of miRNA targets from human cells. Using highly specific monoclonal antibodies against members of the Ago protein family, we co-immunoprecipitate Ago-bound mRNAs and identify them by cloning. Interestingly, most of the identified targets are also predicted by different computer programs. Moreover, we randomly analyzed six different target candidates and were able to experimentally validate five as miRNA targets. Our data clearly indicate that miRNA targets can be experimentally identified from Ago complexes and therefore provide a new tool to directly analyze miRNA function.
Hypoxia contributes to the pathogenesis of various human diseases, including pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), stroke, myocardial or cerebral infarction, and cancer. For example, acute hypoxia causes selective pulmonary artery (PA) constriction and elevation of pulmonary artery pressure. Chronic hypoxia induces structural and functional changes to the pulmonary vasculature, which resembles the phenotype of human PAH and is commonly used as an animal model of this disease. The mechanisms that lead to hypoxia-induced phenotypic changes have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that hypoxia increases type I collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase [C-P4H(I)], which leads to prolyl-hydroxylation and accumulation of Argonaute2 (Ago2), a critical component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Hydroxylation of Ago2 is required for the association of Ago2 with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), which is necessary for the loading of microRNAs (miRNAs) into the RISC, and translocation to stress granules (SGs). We demonstrate that hydroxylation of Ago2 increases the level of miRNAs and increases the endonuclease activity of Ago2. In summary, this study identifies hypoxia as a mediator of the miRNA-dependent gene silencing pathway through posttranslational modification of Ago2, which might be responsible for cell survival or pathological responses under low oxygen stress.
The Piwi protein subfamily is essential for Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis, transposon silencing, and germ-line development, all of which have been proposed to require Piwi endonuclease activity, as validated for two cytoplasmic Piwi proteins in mice. However, recent evidence has led to questioning of the generality of this mechanism for the Piwi members that reside in the nucleus. Drosophila offers a distinct opportunity to study the function of nuclear Piwi proteins because, among three Drosophila Piwi proteins--called Piwi, Aubergine, and Argonaute 3--Piwi is the only member of this subfamily that is localized in the nucleus and expressed in both germ-line and somatic cells in the gonad, where it is responsible for piRNA biogenesis and regulatory functions essential for fertility. In this study, we demonstrate beyond doubt that the slicer activity of Piwi is not required for any known functions in vivo. We show that, in transgenic flies with the DDX catalytic triad of PIWI mutated, neither primary nor secondary piRNA biogenesis is detectably affected, transposons remain repressed, and fertility is normal. Our observations demonstrate that the mechanism of Piwi is independent of its in vitro endonuclease activity. Instead, it is consistent with the alternative mode of Piwi function as a molecule involved in the piRNA-directed guidance of epigenetic factors to chromatin.
The plant protein ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1) functions in multiple RNA-silencing pathways, including those of microRNAs, key regulators of growth and development. Genetic analysis of ago1 mutants with informative defects has provided valuable insights into AGO1's biological functions. Tomato encodes two AGO1 homologs (SlAGO1s), but mutants have not been described to date. To analyze SlAGO1s' involvement in development, we confirmed that both undergo decay in the presence of the Polerovirus silencing suppressor P0 and produce a transgenic responder line (OP:P0HA) that, upon transactivation, expresses P0 C-terminally fused to a hemagglutinin (HA) tag (P0HA) and destabilizes SlAGO1s at the site of expression. By crossing OP:P0HA with a battery of driver lines, constitutive as well as organ- and stage-specific SlAGO1 downregulation was induced in the F1 progeny. Activated plants exhibited various developmental phenotypes that partially overlapped with those of Arabidopsis ago1 mutants. Plants that constitutively expressed P0HA had reduced SlAGO1 levels and increased accumulation of miRNA targets, indicating compromised SlAGO1-mediated silencing. Consistent with this, they exhibited pleiotropic morphological defects and their growth was arrested post-germination. Transactivation of P0HA in young leaf and floral organ primordia dramatically modified corresponding organ morphology, including the radialization of leaflets, petals and anthers, suggesting that SlAGO1s' activities are required for normal lateral organ development and polarity. Overall, our results suggest that the OP:P0HA responder line can serve as a valuable tool to suppress SlAGO1 silencing pathways in tomato. The suppression of additional SlAGOs by P0HA and its contribution to the observed phenotypes awaits investigation. 2b1af7f3a8